Total Hip Arthroplasty Loosening Due to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis with no previous history of pulmonary or extra pulmonary tuberculosis is an extremely rare complication.
To report the case of a patient with tuberculous mycobacterial prosthetic hip infection, 14 years after surgery for post traumatic osteoarthritis, with no previous history of tuberculosis.
A 46-year-old male presented an acetabular loosening of a cemented total hip arthroplasty with subnormal biologic parameters. A one stage revision surgery was planned. Intraoperative findings suggested mycobacterial tuberculous infection with presence of periacetabular yellowish rice-shaped granules.
A one-stage prosthesis exchange was performed; Culture on Löwenstein-Jensen medium grew MTB days after inoculation and histological examination confirmed tuberculous infection. Patient was treated by antituberculous agents for 12 months with optimal clinical and biological response and no prosthetic loosening signs at eighteen months follow up.
Total hip arthroplasty loosening due to mycobacterium tuberculosis is a rare entity, which should be evoked even when no inflammatory signs are shown. Discovery of yellowish rice-shaped granules is an indicator to investigate for tuberculosis. Management of prosthetic joint infection due to M.tuberculosis must involve both medical and surgical approach.
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